News & Events

May 2024: Minor BRAHMS update and news about BRAHMS online

BRAHMS updated to 8.6.3. This minor update includes a small number of updates and fixes for all issues reported since we published 8.6.2. The new features and fixes are documented on brahms/software/revisions.

The next version of BRAHMS online (BOL) is now well on the way and will be published shortly. This is a major update to our existing online service, based on updated technologies for online platforms. For example, it allows users to upload data from all BRAHMS tables and, unlike the current BOL version, you can upload data from all BRAHMS fields including your custom fields. The new BOL includes virtualized data grids with flexible query and grid row filtering, mapping, reporting, image presentation, data summaries and more...

March 2024: BRAHMS update to v8.6.2

BRAHMS updated to 8.6.2. This minor update includes a few handy new features and fixes for all issues reported since we published 8.6.0. The new features and fixes are documented on brahms/software/revisions.

January 2024: BRAHMS update to v8.6.0

BRAHMS updated to 8.6.0. This update includes new features for research taxonomists and biogeographers - and for managers of preserved collections, botanic gardens and seed banks. The new features and fixes are documented on brahms/software/revisions.

December 2023: An updated BRAHMS training guide

The guide includes instructions on how to produce reports such as a species list with conservation status and text descriptions.

The BRAHMS training guide has been substantially updated. The guide can be used with any trial BRAHMS database although we recommend downloading the demo conifer database. The guide reviews general functions across the system including sections on linking up to the demo conifer database, adding and editing data, using RDE, reporting, mapping and more.

October 2023: BRAHMS in Portuguese and German

The upcoming BRAHMS v8.6 release includes the option to switch the entire system into Portuguese (pt-BR) and German. The translation was carried out at herbário INPA in Manaus and by staff at the Späth-Arboretum in Berlin. Unlike BRAHMS v7, in v8, the translation is not confined to parts of the system. The entire interface is translated including menus, toolbars, column headers, forms and messaging. At the same time, we have been working with the Brazil Reference Center for Environmental Information CRIA to ensure data links between BRAHMS and their speciesLink data aggregation service are streamlined. Specieslink is a cooperative and collaborative network that aggregates information on Brazilian biodiversity.

October 2023: Species form fields

In BRAHMS 8.6, users can select which species name epithets are displayed on the main species form by adjusting the system setup and user permission options. Selected groups of fields can be excluded; available in collapsed sections; or displayed in full.

In the upcoming BRAHMS release, v8.6, individual users can control which name epithets are displayed on their main species form. As BRAHMS manages data for users with different interests (taxonomic botany, entomology, mycology, horticulture, etc.), the taxon name epithets that different users want to access vary (e.g. entomologists are not interested in grex, cultivar and trade names). The system can now be configured to supress unwanted taxon name fields on the main species form. In data grids, unwanted fields can already be supressed by using saved field views.

October 2023: Configuring the Web Links toolbar

In BRAHMS 8.6, users can configure their own dynamic website links for each data table.

The upcoming BRAHMS release, v8.6, allows you to configure your BRAHMS Web Links toolbar to include and connect to your preferred websites. As an ornithologist, mycologist, plant taxonomist or a researcher with another specialist interest, you can select your personal Web Link connections as well as use sites that have been shared across your BRAHMS project. Web Links can be configured to include search parameters that enable dynamic searching as you move through your data grid records. The new Web Links editor on the Management menu includes options to select icons and toolbar text; add the URL with any search parameters using any BRAHMS data field from the relevant table; set whether the link is personal or shared; choose the BRAHMS tables the links are associated with; and set the order in which they appear. The ability to edit Web Links is permission controlled.

September 2023: Oxford Plant Systematics Newsletters

Since 1993, the Plant Sciences systematics and plant diversity research group has published the Oxford Plant Systematics (OPS) Newsletters, normally once per year. The latest newsletter (OPS 28) was published this month. Along with short articles about on-going research activity, this includes a summary of recent BRAHMS developments. You can view this and all past editions of these newsletters on the OPS page on the BRAHMS Oxford website. OPS has now been published for over 25 years - a short summary is provided in 25 years of Oxford Plant Systematics Newsletters.

September 2023: Enhancements to BRAHMS 8.5.2 published

This minor version update adds in a few requested features including barcode beeps for found/not found; much improved barcode search/filter speed; automated updating of the HTML calculated species string after a name edit; and some refinements for the RSO production/propagation module. All reported issues also fixed. The new features and fixes are documented on brahms/software/revisions.

August 2023: BRAHMS update to 8.5.2

BRAHMS updated to 8.5.2 - this update includes a wide range of new features together with improvements and fixes across the system. These include updates to the Seed Manager; a range of new system-wide Data Tools; extensions to the internal ArcGIS mapper; and additional functions for Living and Preserved Collections. The new features and fixes are documented on brahms/software/revisions.

ArcGIS maps can be used in conjunction with the Tree View control. Maps auto-update when Tree View filters are auto-applied. The Tree Views themselves can be designed to include any hierarchy from your visible fields list. This feature provides a cool way to view your data graphically and update maps for selected tree view nodes.

July 2023: Updated garden app published

A new version (v.2.0.0) of the BRAHMS android app for updating garden records has now been published. The revised app is further optimised for capturing data and images to update your garden records. This includes an overall upgrade to the app's user interface with improved menu layout and grouping of toolbar options; a revised plant details page with optimised layout and a larger map area; improved query tools including a new fast Plant ID locator; revised column design and selection options; a mechanism to review which plants have been edited and to visualise these on your maps; and new mapping functions. The app works offline and thus can also be used in areas without access to the internet or telecom networks. For full details of the updated app, refer to the garden app documentation.

The updated app, which includes many new features, has improved mapping functions.

July 2023: BRAHMS seed bank manager

The updated to the BRAHMS seed bank manager module has now been completed and will be included in the next software release. The revised manager includes extended features for managing seed storage; seed transactions; new tables for recording multiple moisture content and tetrazolium tests per seed accession; and a seed collection quality evaluation tool. The revised seed store options provide greater control for storing and monitoring seed quantities measured by seed count or weight, for example, 50 x 5g barcoded packets, in documented storage locations. Seed can easily be linked to transactions, controlling all aspects of seed distribution and maintaining a record of remaining seed stock. This new system works equally well for projects with numerous small seed containers/packets and those with larger quantities of seed distributed by weight. The seed collection quality evaluation tool uses the Seed Conservation Standards developed and adopted by seedbanks across the global Millennium Seed Bank Partnership. This provides an objective method to evaluate collection quality based on a list of ranked collection standards. Seed quality can be assessed at the accession level and then summarised by country of origin, supplier, taxon group or any other selected data category.

June 2023: RHS Plant Finder published


The 2023 RHS Plant Finder has been published using BRAHMS reporting. The data included in the book are gathered using some newly creating BRAHMS online tools that allow participating nurseries in the UK and elsewhere in Europe to upload details describing the plants they currently hold in stock. The submitted data are assembled by the RHS into their central BRAHMS database where the names are checked and standardized against their tightly controlled species list. The 2023 Plant Finder includes more than 69,000 plant names and over 1,400 new plant introductions.

June 2023: BRAHMS garden app update

The BRAHMS project is now proceeding to invest in updating its app for botanic gardens. The app is used to capture and update data for plant records with tools for mapping and image capture. This work will commence in June and should be completed during August. The updates are based on recommendations provided by a number of users and focus on efficiency of use for capturing data on garden walk-abouts. Aside from UI enhancements, there are also new features being added including the ability to highlight map records for selected plants; a way to quickly see which records have already been updated; and improved data grid column selection procedures.

June 2023: BRAHMS v8.5.1 published

This update includes a wide range of new features together with improvements and fixes across the system. These include improved performance in large data tables (> 1 million records); more efficient processing of calculated data fields; faster mapping with our integrated ArcGIS tools; the ability to organise your custom fields into meaningful groups; italicised taxa names displayed directly in data grids, also available for reporting; new data functions for taxa, preserved and living collections; the ability to add field-level custom help text; an improved Rapid Data File (RDE) manager; and more. The new features and fixes are documented on brahms/software/revisions.

Integrated ArcGIS mapping is now faster and provides greater control over the number of data points plotted. The full list updates is provided on brahms/software/revisions. Map data provided by Naturalis, Leiden.

May 2023: Naturalis Museum upgraded to BRAHMS v8

The Naturalis Museum botanical section (= National Herbarium Netherlands) in Leiden, Netherlands, completed their transfer from BRAHMS 7 to v8 in May. The data migration, planned over several months, also includes multiple classifications for their taxa as the herbarium consists of a merger of the previously separated herbaria (AMS, L, U and WAG), each with slightly different curation systems. The database, with > 6 million imaged specimens, is the largest BRAHMS database. It is running in PostgreSQL on a Linux server.

March 2023: Chicago Botanic Garden

Chicago Botanic Garden have gone live with BRAHMS v8.5.1. With CBG, we have collaboratively developed new components to manage curator’s requests for plants, be these seasonal or for permanent accessioning. Requests are processed in stages from approval, scheduling and ordering through propagation/production to the delivery of plants to the required garden locations. We have also extended the ability to manage the dictionary of container and tray (flat) categories and the associated number of containers per tray - these data being used to help calculate space requirements, label totals and inventory counts. For mapping, they are linking BRAHMS with ArcMap and ArcPro. Further CBG science data are also being migrated into BRAHMS in stages.

February 2023: Organising your custom fields into named groups

If there are storage fields that you need but are not available as standard BRAHMS fields, you can add these as custom fields. The next version of BRAHMS provides features that enable you to organise and present these fields in named groups. The sort order of your groups and the fields within them can be adjusted. When viewing or editing data using a form, your custom fields will be presented within your assigned groups.

Custom fields can now be organised and sorted within named groups. The example here shows custom fields added to the species table.

February 2023: BRAHMS v8.5 published

BRAHMS 8.5 includes additions, improvements and fixes across the system. These include the implementation of multiple classifications for family-genus relationships, a new module for plant requests, scheduling and ordering (RSO) covering seasonal as well as accessioned material; upgrades to the existing plant propagation and production components; improvements to RDE; and new fields for literature management. The new features and bug fixes are fully documented on brahms/software/revisions. The BRAHMS guide has been updated.

February 2023: Plant Requests, Scheduling and Ordering -> Production/Propagation

Plant requests, scheduling and ordering (RSO) options, developed in collaboration with Chicago Botanic Garden, are used to manage the high annual flow-through of requests for new plants from garden curators, be these for temporary display or full accessioning. Accessioned plants are registered in the Living Accessions table while display plants are not. Requests are submitted to a central RSO table where they are subsequently processed in stages from request authorization through to propagation, production and dispatch. Options to add forecasted plant space, temperature and media requirements are included. Species default growth requirements can be added and utilized. The scheduling of plant delivery and ordering is optimised to meet the required garden delivery dates and reduce costs, for example by combining requests into single orders from a selected vendor. Plant propagation and production options, linked back to RSO entries, have also been updated. The new RSO and revised production/propagation features are fully documented in the BRAHMS guide sections Plant Requests, Scheduling and Ordering (RSO) and Production and Propagation. These features are available in BRAHMS v8.5 to be published in February 2023.

Plant propagation and production at CBG. Images provided by Chicago Botanic Garden (CBG).

February 2023: Multiple Classification

It is now possible to implement multiple classifications for family-genus relationships in BRAHMS - a genus name can be linked to more than one family. There is no limit to the number of classification systems that can be adopted. The use of multiple classifications may be required by herbaria where there is more than one family-genus system in use. This feature was developed in collaboration with Naturalis (Netherlands) where the herbarium consists of a merger of the previously separated Leiden, Utrecht, Wageningen and Amsterdam herbaria. Here, as in many other herbaria with long histories, genera were and continue to be curated under different family names. Procedures for managing multiple classifications are documented in the BRAHMS guide section A closer look at taxa and related data > Multiple Classification Systems. This feature is available in BRAHMS v8.5 to be published in February 2023.

January 2023: BRAHMS 8.4

New features including optional data-grid column header wrapping, a BRAHMS command line option to update all calculated fields (potentially scheduled to run nightly) and additional reporting tools are fully documented on brahms/software/revisions. The BRAHMS guide has been updated. For those interested in developing more complex reports, the ability to add ‘calculated fields’ is now documented in the guide section Reports and Report Templates > Adding Calculated Columns, adding a new dimension to reporting flexibility.

November 2022: BRAHMS v8.3.0 published

BRAHMS v.8.3.0 published with selected new features added across the system for both living and preserved collections. The full release notes are published on:

BRAHMS v. 8.3.0 published 9 November 2022.

October 2022: Controlling report print numbers

Using the report designer, you can add a feature that controls how many reports (e.g. labels) are printed per record. For example, you may want to print 1, 2 or 3 herbarium labels per record to correspond to the number of duplicates you have. This can be controlled by using any numeric field available in your database. The Collection Events table has a standard field for this named 'Labelcount' - but you could also use a custom field in this or another table. This report feature was initially conquered by Kiara Ricketts, a member of the Biodiversity Information Management team at SANBI in South Africa. Details on how to add this feature to a report template are provided in the BRAHMS manual section Designing and Running Reports > Controlling report output using a numeric count field.

A label example from the Compton Herbarium, Cape Town, South Africa. Click on image to show the 3 + 1 example controlled by the numeric field 'labelcount'

September 2022: Calculated fields

One of the new features in the forthcoming BRAHMS version is a change to the way that calculated fields are managed. Calculated fields, usually numeric totals, are found in most tables. Examples: the number of collection events per country; the number of degree squares a family, genus or species occurs in; the number of living plants per species. In the revision, all field re-calculations are managed from a single management table which lists calculated fields across the system and indicates when each field was last updated. Calculated fields can be added to preference groups for recalculation and these actions can be scheduled to run on a regular basis, for example overnight. Another new feature is that users with the appropriate permissions can add their own calculations to custom fields. The required SQL scripts can be developed and saved to the new calculated fields table.

Image shows some of the fields in the recalculations table

August 2022: Web APIs

We are often asked if it's possible to develop fast online tools to consult BRAHMS databases. One way to do this is to set up a simple web API with associated client. There are no restrictions on API development and we encourage projects with the necessary resources to do this. The link below is a very simple example of a Web client - API that pulls data from a BRAHMS database with living collections. In this example, the web-client includes 4 search parameters and presents the search results in tabular format. This can be run from any browser on any device. Such search options, adjusted to suit, clearly may have utility for e.g. garden curators with smart phones. The search parameters and query result formats are easily edited.

For projects wishing to set up similar such APIs on their own servers, we can send guidelines on the steps to take together with the documented sample code of our example.

July 2022: BRAHMS v8.2.0 published

BRAHMS v.8.2.0 published with selected new features added across the system for both living and preserved collections. The full release notes are published on:

BRAHMS v. 8.2.0 published 30 July 2022.

July 2022: Accession # and Barcode generation for herbaria

Specimen accession numbers and barcodes can now be auto-generated according to defined rules. For databases covering multiple herbaria/institutions, the configuration rules can be set on a ‘per-institute’ basis as each will have their own barcode sequences. Formatting rules include the ability to add prefixes, suffixes, string padding, separator characters and, for barcodes, sheet numbers. Once configured, you can run a tool available in the main specimen table to add the new calculated values for accession numbers and/or barcodes to tagged records. Barcodes can still be scanned in from already-printed barcodes - this new tool is for use by institutions that do not use pre-printed barcodes.

June 2022: BRAHMS impact as a world wide data management system

The BRAHMS project was selected by the University of Oxford as one of the entries submitted to the most recent UK government Research Excellence Framework (REF). The REF, undertaken by all UK higher education institutions, is used as a guideline to assess the impact and benefit of research as widely as possible, beyond academia.

BRAHMS was one of the projects selected by the University of Oxford as part of their most recent REF submission.

June 2022: BRAHMS v8.1.1 published

BRAHMS v.8.1.1 published with selected new features. This version updates BRAHMS to include the new Index Seminum (Seed Catalogue) publishing options together with a range of new features including new tools for managing taxa names, excel Match/Import additions and enhancements with Google Earth mapping. The full release notes are published on:

June 2022: Index Seminum

It is now possible to develop Index Seminum catalogues directly from BRAHMS. Seed catalogues can be built up based on accessioned and non-accessioned material for wild or cultivated plants. Facilities are provided to create named catalogue entries, often one per year, with descriptive data held under user-definable headings. You can then link seed entries based on your current garden accessions and/or manually add details for non-accessioned material. Full reporting options are provided enabling you to format catalogue text headings and your selected seed entries, sorted and numbered appropriately. Reporting can be used to generate PDFs and other output formats.

The Index Seminum options allow you to develop, update and publish seed catalogues directly from BRAHMS, maintaining your entries over the years for all published catalogues.

June 2022: BRAHMS v8.1 published

BRAHMS v.8.1 published with key new features and tools. Included are a new reports manager; improved procedures to create RDE files; heavily updated plant production and propagation components; a new module for managing plant requests, scheduling and ordering; new forms for specimens and literature; query and filter improvements; enhancements with adding and editing connections to data stores; and a range of new tools across the system. The full release notes are published on:

May 2022: RHS Plant Finder published


Using online tools developed in BRAHMS, nurseries in the UK and Europe have been able to submit details of the plant species they currently have in stock. The species names have been assembled by the RHS into their BRAHMS database where all the submissions have been checked and standardized against their tightly controlled species list. The names in their database, mostly cultivars, are stored and organised using a new approach called 'Plant Entities'. This is soon to be formally published as an improved way to manage the complexity of cultivated plant names. The assembled names were formatted using BRAHMS reporting into the 2022 Plant Finder publication. This includes more than 69,000 plant names and over 4,200 new plant introductions.

April 2022: BRAHMS Report Manager

Saved report templates can now be registered and shared with all users using the Report Manager tool. The manager lists the report templates registered for the opened table with the report names and descriptions. Database users can then select and run registered reports, by-passing the report designer. Users with appropriate permissions can design and register reports in the manager. Registered templates (represented by XML instructions) are incorporated into your database and thus there is no need to locate and share the actual .mrt template files. If 'Shared' is selected, a report will be listed and available to all users. Otherwise, the template will only be listed for the user that created it. Existing .mrt files or files you have received from another project can be imported and thus registered in the manager. Report templates can also be exported to .mrt files for exchanging with other users/projects.

Users without the appropriate permissions can only run registered report templates. Click on the image to see further options.

March 2022: Design websites and publish data online

The BRAHMS ‘WebConnect’ module has now been completed allowing users to create and design websites directly from BRAHMS using the tools provided on the Publish Online menu. You can develop web pages using the full flexibly of HTML, CSS and JavaScript (including JQuery) and selectively upload data and images to your website for taxa; collection events; specimens; seed accessions and their tests; and living collections.

When uploading data, you can choose to upload new records, changed records or otherwise restrict to tagged. Each record in the relevant BRAHMS tables has fields that indicate who uploaded the data and when. By comparing the upload and last modified dates, the system is able to restrict uploading to records that have been changed since their last upload.

March 2022: Creating new Rapid Data Entry (RDE) files using project templates

Procedures are now provided to create new RDE files from pre-designed project templates - simplifying the file creation process for RDE users. There is no limit to the number of templates you can create.

Projects can now pre-design RDE templates for different categories of data capture and locate these templates in a shared folder designated via a new RDE setup option. The new setup options also allow the database manager/admin to restrict access to the RDE file Creation Wizard on a user by user basis. Users creating new RDE files can now choose a project template to copy from the RDE file template list. Access to the RDE file Creation Wizard can thus be limited to database managers. Using the Wizard, new templates can be defined and added to the shared RDE templates folder.

February 2022: Multi-Column Data Analysis

One of the latest data analysis tools added to BRAHMS is for 'Multi-Column Analysis'. The tool enables you to select two or more data columns in the opened table and it then provides a total for each set or records that have the same data values for these selected columns. This tool has useful applications for all databases. For example, in Collection Events, if you were to choose the fields Family, Country and Year, the totals will be the number of records per different Family + Country + Year combination. In the same table, if you were to choose Collector + Country + Genus + Species, the list would show the number of different species collected by each collector per country. The same tool can also be used to identify and mark up duplicated record entries./

You can select any columns to include in the analysis. By default the results are sorted by count. You can apply filters and sorts to the results data grid. In the above example, we can see that the collector Walters, T. made 89 collections of Agathis lanceolata in New Caledonia.

December 2021: BRAHMS v8.0.10 published

Recognising the growing importance of international regulations that control the collection and distribution of bio-materials, this version includes extended features to link collections to legal agreements/permits and, optionally, to align these within a selected legal framework.

New functions are also added for exporting entire databases to XML; the ability to transfer databases between data stores; to view all literature links and transaction details across the system; and to manage date time storage more effectively for projects editing data across time zones. Fixes are provided for all reported bugs including those relating to the management of custom fields. The full release notes are published on: The BRAHMS manual is updated.

The default legal/permit values as provided can be edited under System > Options > Management > Legal Setup.

November 2021: Database export and transfers tool

A database export tool is now available - allowing you to export an entire database to a folder of XML files. These data can subsequently be imported to another database using the existing Import tool. Using this function, you can transfer your database(s) from any data store to any other store. For example, you could move a database from SQLite or MSSQL Server to PostgreSQL - or in the other direction. This function is added to 8.0.10.

The new data export/transfer tool exports all data including configuration settings.

October 2021: BRAHMS updated to v8.09

v8.09 was published 31 October. This is a substantial update with new features and improvements across the system. In addition to an upgraded Seed Module, improved personal name management and overhauled RDE to BRAHMS transfers, there are new tools for date filters, multi-column analysis, Darwin Core archive (DwC) exports, map tagging, GIS links and query sharing.

RDE transfers to BRAHMS are faster and have improved progress feedback. Using the internal ArcGIS mapper, map tagging can now be used to select multiple points for editing or any other purpose.

The full release notes are published on:

September 2021: Seed Manager Module

A major revision to the BRAHMS Seed Manager Module was published mid-September and is now being tested for live use. This module, developed collaboratively with the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership (MSBP) at Kew, has broad curation and research applications for projects that collect, store, test and distribute seed. Included are options for recording detailed seed passport data, seed cleaning and processing, calculations for seed weights and counts, X-ray, tetrazolium and germination testing. For germination tests, results can be scored across replicates for any number of test days with selected observation intervals, leading to the final calculations for germination and viability%. The test scoring form can be conveniently used on a lab bench tablet.

Entering seed weight calculations and germination test observations

July 2021: BRAHMS app for Botanic Gardens launched

A BRAHMS app for botanic gardens has been launched. The app runs on Android and iOS tablets or similar devices. An internet signal is not required - thus it can be used in remote, offline areas. As with BRAHMS desktop, data can viewed and queried in flexible data grids. The app provides functions for stock quantity and status checks, requesting labels, plant moves, verifications, adding notes and adding other general events and requests, for example for propagation. Plants can be geo-referenced using the in-build mapping capabilities. Images can be taken and auto-linked to plant records. If online, you can use dynamic weblinks to check details and images for the current plant name. Data from the app are returned to BRAHMS desktop where you can update the relevant plant records. Further details are provided on the App for Botanic Gardens page.

The garden app speeds up stock checks and related data gathering activities

July 2021: Improved dynamic links to JSTOR and GBIF

Dynamic links to the GBIF and JSTOR sites (JSTOR requires licence agreement) to check data against the selected data grid taxon name have been added - the weblinks update as you browse through your data.

Dynamic links to various handy web sites are provided on the Weblink toolbar

June 2021: BRAHMS 8.08 published

The BRAHMS software was updated to v8.08 14 June 2021. The full release notes are published on

April 2021: Links to PostgreSQL now completed

BRAHMS can now be fully connected to PostgreSQL databases, providing a further option for storing large datasets. This addition will be included in v8.08 which will be published later in April. A data connections wizard for PostreSQL has also been added allowing you to create new PG databases directly from BRAHMS.

PostgreSQL is a free and open-source relational database management system emphasizing extensibility and SQL compliance.

March 2021: System updates

Two revisions for BRAHMS were published during March this year with a substantial number of new features across the system as well as resolving reported snags. The full release notes are published on

January 2021: Multi-value search tool

The multi-value search tool, available in all tables, enables you to copy or enter a list of values to locate and tag records in the currently opened table. For example, you may have a list of species names, collector numbers, publication years, plant accession IDs, barcodes or transaction IDs that you wish to locate. Rather than searching for these one by one, the data items can be manually added to the multi-value search area or pasted in from a list you may have - e.g. a list of values in a Word doc or an Excel column.

The multi-value search option allows you to search for a list of data values.

December 2020: BRAHMS v8.04 published

Version 8.04, released 12 December 2020, includes new features across the system. Changes include the addition of new database indexes that improve overall system efficiency; alterations to the way that RDE data files are imported - now faster and providing additional data analysis feedback; improvements to data grid filtering, especially when querying on numeric values; a range of refinements and additions across the living collection module including a more explicit mechanism to define and control the printing of garden labels; and extensions to mapping tools in RDE files. All reported bugs have been fixed.

The full release notes are published on

An example showing multi-parameter character and numeric filtering using the data grid filter row.

October 2020: BRAHMS v8.03 published

Version 8.03 includes features for more efficient sign-in and other system level set-up options; new tagging, filtering and reporting features; additional options for taxonomy and botanic garden management. All reported bugs have been fixed.

The full release notes are published on

September 2020: BRAHMS v 8.02 published

Version 8.02 brings together many new features and enhancements – as well as resolving bugs as reported. The release notes are published in the v 8.02 release notes document.

A right-click on data grids now provides quick access to many of the commonly used toolbar options.

August 2020: BRAHMS selected to manage living collections at Kew Gardens

Earlier this year, Kew Gardens adopted BRAHMS to manage their living collections. Kew has two main public garden sites, one at Kew in London and the other at Wakehurst Place further south in Sussex, also the home to Kew's Millennium Seed Bank. Working closely with Kew horticultural and IT staff, functionality in BRAHMS has been extended to manage Kew's extensive living plant collections with many new features and functions added, based on their long established horticultural practices.

July 2020: BRAHMS teams up with Royal Horticultural Society (RHS)

The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) has announced their adoption of BRAHMS to manage their extensive plant names backbone as well their network of gardens and herbarium collections. Using the expertise of RHS in this area, a new approach that helps manage the complexity of cultivated plant names has been built into BRAHMS. More details are provided in the news item: Oxford teams up with The Royal Horticultural Society to develop innovative plant data management.

July 2020: BRAHMS 8.01 published

The latest BRAHMS system published 10 July. As well as wrapping up all reported issues, v8.01 includes new plant propagation features as part of the Living Collection module. Propagation activities for seed, cuttings and grafts have been streamlined into a more flexible structure which caters for standard production propagation as well as more detailed experimental work. Plant records can now be generated directly from propagation with a tracking system recording the propagation history of each plant.

May 2020: User notifications and other new features

The latest update to BRAHMS includes a handy User Notification function. This can be used by system administrators to broadcast a message to active users on a networked system. The primary function is to advice users to log out for a software upgrade – with an option to auto-shutdown BRAHMS after a specified number of minutes. Raw phenology data can now be recorded against plant records for any registered trait (flowering, fruiting, leaf flush, etc.) and these data can be summarised by month in table or graph form. Another handy new addition is the ability to sort records in any table that includes species names using Natural Species Sort order.

User notifications can be broadcasted by the System Administrator.

Raw phenology data can now be recorded against plant records for any registered trait.

The name list of the right-side uses Natural Species Sort order.

April 2020: Improving access to data in virtualized grids and other innovations

BRAHMS data grids look rather like Excel worksheets – the data are presented in rows and columns. How does this work in databases with millions of records in a single table? The answer lies in data virtualization. As you scroll up or down the data grid, BRAHMS pulls data from your data store as needed. In fact, the system gathers a little more data than you see at any one time, probably about three screens worth of data - and this helps to provide a seamless flow of data as you scroll up and down the data grids.

In the latest BRAHMS update, the efficiency of data virtualization has been increased. And some handy new instant sort and filter functions have been added. One of these allows users to quickly sort on those records added or last modified most recently. Another allows individual users to filter on the records that they have added or edited.

New quick sort options are provided to bring the last modified or last added records to the top of the table.

March 2020: Significant updates to the Botanic Garden management module

A package of updates has been introduced to the living collection module. These include new features for configuring accession and plant ID numbering; adding clonal and non-clonal plant records; deading and resurrecting plants; plant name verification; improved control for name changes; an upgraded stock control system; and the requesting and printing of engraved or standard labels.

One of the new options for botanic gardens provides greater control over changing plant status - deading and resurrecting.

January 2020: New Plant Identification and Voucher Link options for Botanic Gardens

The living collection plants form has a new Identification tab providing greater control over plant naming and for editing plant-voucher links.

If a name is confirmed, a confirmation event is auto-added to the plant Events table including the date and confirmation person. Name change options also allow the separation of clones to a new accession where there is an identification discrepancy for plants derived from the same accession.

On the Plant Vouchers tab, options are provided to list, link and unlink vouchers. This plant has 5 vouchers collected over several years and with different flowering/fruiting status. Here, a filter has been set on the calculated field #VoucherTotal to show plants with >= 3 vouchers. A plant may have multiple vouchers of different categories (herbarium specimens, DNA samples and similar) added over time.

December 2019: User Access and Permission settings strengthened

Database manager(s) can now control in more detail the permissions a given user has in a given database. Access can be provided on a module by module basis. Within each module, the user may have Read Only or Read and Modify access. If modify access is provided, the user may selectively be allowed to add records, mark records for deletion, and then to delete records.

User permissions showing a range of settings. Click on the above image to zoom in...

December 2019: mapping plants by botanic garden location

As well as listing and mapping plants by garden area/location from the main plants table, you can now do this directly from the gardens locations table using some handy new form options. With the locations form opened, you can dynamically list or map plants from the current location, browsing through the locations table to update the display. Maps can be restricted to plants that have a Live status or equivalent. You can also map plants for all tagged locations. The next revision will include options to plot KML/KMZ areas defining garden zones and areas.

Plant lists and maps dynamically update as you browse through your locations table

December 2019: Calculating distances with the Map Point Editor

It's often necessary to adjust a map point position based on a distance measurement, for example where a collection event locality note say '20km west along route 249'. Or perhaps to know how far one sample site is from another e.g. in a marine sample site, forest or a botanic garden. This can be done using the internal Map Point Editor Distance Measurements option. Distances can be calculated in different units and if appropriate, an adjusted point can be auto-added to your data grid.

After drawing a polyline, a right-click on the map will update the data grid map reference. Click on the above image to zoom in...

December 2019: Location searching added to the BRAHMS Map Point Editor

The internal Map Point Editor, dynamically connected to your data grids, has been extended with a location search tool. Localities can be searched for by name or part of a name, adding a region or country to help improve the results listed. Clicking on the suggested locations list adds a blue suggestion marker to the map. A right-click on the map adds the map reference to the data grid. The location search is very similar to that provided in e.g. Google Earth.

The newly added location search option extends the value of the Map Point Editor. Click on the above image to zoom in...

December 2019: Taxonomic Name Resolution Service

Tagged records in the main species table can now be passed to the Taxonomic Name Resolution Service (TNRS) for analysis/verification. This tool is available from the main Taxa menu when the species table is opened.

The TNRS tool provides a handy way to check taxa names against a number of authorities. Click on the above image to zoom in...

November 2019: Image imports, Find/Replace and Tag Transfers

The most recent updates to BRAHMS include some cool new features for editing and managing data and images.

The Image Import tool allows you to import any list of images (file names or URLs) from an Excel .xlsx file, register the images in your image library and link the images to the correct record within your database using one or more data match fields. In the BRAHMS manual, refer to the section Images > Importing images and image links from Excel.

The Find/Replace options works in text fields in RDE and the main database tables. The option is described in the BRAHMS manual section Adding and Editing data > Find and Replace.

The Tag Transfer option has been expanded to transfer tags either to child records or parent records. Thus, if you have tagged a selection of collection events, perhaps using a map filter, you can then use these tags to tag the relevant species, genera, family records in their respective tables. On the other hand, you could tag some species and use these to tag all related collections, specimens, seed accessions, plants and more…

October 2019: Database structural changes now automated with software upgrades

When licensed users update their BRAHMS software, the system now offers to auto-update the structure any connected databases – assuming structural changes are needed. The version of your current database is compared with that of the new software and any required updates are carried out accordingly. If there have been multiple software revisions since your last update, the necessary updates are carried out sequentially. You need to be online to use the auto-update option.

All database updates are now managed by your updated software

October 2019: BRAHMS updates with toolbars and documentation

The BRAHMS manual has been substantially updated with new sections on Licensing; Installation; Software Updates; Data Stores and Connections; Database Management; User Accounts and Permissions; and Setup and Language. A separate installation guide has also been prepared. Meanwhile, toolbars have been updated to make these ever more intuitive while incorporating a growing number of functions.

Toolbars have been revised to optimise efficiency and layout. Options are grouped into context sensitive tab areas, dynamically enabled.

September 2019: Mapping, Lookups and BRAHMS online

The September updates to BRAHMS include improved data links to ArcMAP, QGIS and Google Earth; a new central manager for lookup values; a new procedure to import data directly from Excel into any BRAHMS table; and dynamic website creation and editing.

BRAHMS now passes many more data fields including record GUIDs to ArcMAP and QGIS allowing you to check data against locality names and set map themes. Data edited in your GIS can be used to update locality data in BRAHMS.

WebConnect provides tools to add and format web pages and link pages into website menu options. You can set individual pages to require a login, typically used to search sensitive data. The right side of the screen displays and updates your live web site as you edit.

August 2019: Millennium Seed Bank Partnership Data Warehouse

The BRAHMS online Millennium Seed Bank Partnership Data Warehouse has been updated and now stores data on over 144,000 seed accessions with linked wild origin and germination test results. Also added are some 6000 x-ray images of seed, these contributing to the viability testing. Registration and login is required to explore these data. For information on gaining access to the Data Warehouse, please contact Naomi Carvey [N.Carvey @]

Top: Xray images are used to assess seed viability. Lower: Interactive cluster map showing seed collection locations.

July 2019: Links to ArcMap and QGIS

You can now link directly to ArcMap/ArcGIS and QGIS, assuming you have access to these GIS packages, creating new map projects or open existing ones. If the saved project includes the BRAHMS map point output file as a data layer, this will plot the tagged or filtered data you have selected together with whatever other layers are saved to the map project. Note that the BRAHMS internal ArcGIS mapper requires no installation - but you do need to be online.

July 2019: Flora of the World Online

Dynamic links have been added to the World Flora Online website with the pages updating as you browse through your data grid.

June 2019: Version 8 updates

A range of new developments has been incorporated into BRAHMS v8 during the last month. 1. New data verification tools are available throughout the system. Unlike v7, a given record may have multiple verification entries, tracking verification status category, by who, when and optional comments. Records can be tagged based on their latest verification status, for example records where the map references require checking or those that have doubtful determinations. 2. The transfer of data from Excel to RDE has been speeded up. 3. RDE to BRAHMS imports now maintain the import log in the RDE manager itself as a permanent data transfer reference. 4. There are further configuration control options for data grids, for example, adding vertical grid lines. 5. The record Zoom window has been extended with options to show all fields or only those with data and to navigate to a column by double-clicking on a zoom window field name. 6. Living collection event records are now importing from RDE with options to update plant status, label requirements and annotations.

The Zoom option provides a handy summary of the entire record and also allows you to navigate to any column by double-clicking on the Zoom window field name

April 2019: BRAHMS v8 'Getting Started' guide

A new short guide Getting started with BRAHMS v8 has been prepared with some 25 illustrated tasks, many with video links. The tasks focus on topics such as opening and docking tables, sorting, lookups, defining data views, querying, exporting, editing data and a selection of mapping and reporting features.

March 2019: Access and Permissions settings in v8

BRAHMS v8 users can be assigned access and permission rights to a selected database project. Permissions are edited by the system administrator or database manager. A permission set can be created/saved and can subsequently be assigned to other users. Permissions influence the following features: A) The modules or components of modules that a user sees (modules can be completely hidden); B) Where access is provided, this can be set as Create, Read, Update and Delete (CRUD); Read and Modify; or Read Only. C) Additional non-module related access features can be edited such as the ability to merge records or edit map points.

Map editor

Left, this permission set may be suitable for a transaction manager; right, an example for visitors with read-only access.

January 2019: New map point editor speeds up all geo-referencing activities

A new map point editor has been added to v8 allowing you to dynamically select map points for collection events, garden plants and the like - with great precision, speeding up all geo-referencing activities. The editor is available in RDE and in your main tables. With auto-save enable, a right click on the map auto-updates the data grid values. Various options are provided to control the map units used, zoom levels and base map selection.

Map editor

October 2018: Improved coordination of multiple windows in v8

In BRAHMS v8, you can now open and coordinate multiple windows including grids, forms, dynamic weblinks and maps. These windows update as you change grid records.



August 2018: BRAHMS v8 first release published

The first full release of BRAHMS v8 was published on 21 August 2018. You can obtain a copy of the full system for evaluation together with an introductory guide from the OUI evaluation website. The guide provides a series of tasks with links to demonstration data. It introduces a range of topics for botanists, zoologists and others working with Natural History data explaining also how you can import your own plant or animal data.

August 2018: BRAHMS v8 video clips

Video clips demonstrating a range of functions in BRAHMS v8 are gradually be uploaded to . These cover wide range of topics from Adding a new user to Mapping and printing labels from a Rapid Data Entry file.

BRAHMS version 8 is being launched August 2018.

August 2018: Powerful new reporting feature integrated with BRAHMS v8

Adding to the existing report features, we have connected BRAHMS v8 to a reporting suite that effectively replaces the functions of Text and Visual reporting in v7. As with the ArcGIS API, links to Stimulsoft Reporting have been fully embedded in BRAHMS v8. This new reporter, which comes licensed with BRAHMS, provides almost limitless power to generate lists, master detail reports, labels, charts, cross-tabs and more. You can print, send to documents, attach as email or publish online. Stimulsoft report wizards are provided and there are guides and videos available online for those wanting to stretch their report design legs. Some ready to use examples are provided with BRAHMS, together with some start up notes. For those familiar with v7 reporting, there are many familiar features such as a visual designer; report bands for headers, data, footers and summaries; and text formatting and style setting. Although not needed, you can refer to the full reporter user manual.


The new reporting features integrated with v8 include handy wizards to get you started.

June 2018: Some of the differences between v7 and v8

BRAHMS v7 users will quickly recognise many of the tools and functions in v8 as well as the broad layout of the menus - making it easier to upgrade. Some of the main differences between v7 and the new system are highlighted here: Changes_in_v8.pdf


Data grids have a handy filter row where you can enter values to filter on multiple columns.

May 2018: BRAHMS v8 update

BRAHMS v8 is now approaching publication as we add in the few key remaining core functions and features. One of these is RDE which we have left to the last. RDE (Rapid Data Entry) provides a very efficient mechanism to add to data - or to gather data from external sources such as Excel files. In V8, All RDE files can be editing after transfer to BRAHMS and then used to update your database.

The video clip below shows how you can coordinate Tree Views with the in-built ArcGis mapper. The Tree View of taxa names is set to Filter on selection (lower screen). The map background switches from Dark Grey to World Imagery. Maps auto-update with filters and the current collection event record is highlighted in yellow. Clicking on map points locates the record in the grid, an excellent way to locate map errors. The Extent of Occurrence (EOO) is easily calculated.

February 2018: BRAHMS v8 under trial at the Oxford University Herbaria

The new BRAHMS system v8 is now under trial at the Oxford University Herbaria. The data from v7 have been transferred in full to a MS SQL Server data store. We will test and adjust the system during February, adjusting as necessary and monitoring performance. Some of the new BRAHMS v8 features are documented on the Explore BRAHMS v8 page.

January 2018: BRAHMS 7.9.9

BRAHMS updated to 7.9.9. Most of the changes in this version concern the transfer of data to the upcoming V8 system. The transfer process has been enhanced to work with larger datasets and carries out more comprehensive data verification checks on v7 databases.

June 2017: Query your database online using mobile friendly forms

A form designer with new data display options capable of running on smart phones has been added to BRAHMS online. Once logged in to your website and with the form designer opened (option listed under your login options), you can set up one or more forms for the listed data categories (taxa, specimens, living collections, seed), choosing the form fields to include. The fields can be set to search on 'starts with', 'exact match', 'contains' and 'numeric ranges' - as appropriate. The form designer has a test facility within the designer itself. However, the idea is that you then copy the generated HTML code to a new page on your website and here, edit/refine the code to alter form appearance.

The results can be displayed as they are now in lists, grids and/or maps. But you can also choose to display the results as text in pages. These pages, formatted using knockout templates, can be edited by adding your own report templates. Pages can include images. You can set up several forms, each with different search fields and with a different audience in mind - and these pages can then be added to your website via BRAHMS WebConnect. It should be stressed that the sample output provided is only an example of what can be achieved. A little investment in learning to use knockout templates will pay dividends here. Both the form and the results are easily used/displayed on smart phone size screens. Results can be diverted to a new page on your website - or added below the search form.

The Hanoi herbarium BRAHMS online website on a mobile phone showing a search form and the results including options to zoom into images

May 2017: Strengthening the Botanical Infrastructure of Malawi


With support from a UK BBSRC Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) grant ‘Strengthening the Botanical Infrastructure of Malawi’, a one week BRAHMS training event with a focus on specimen imaging was held at the National Herbarium and Botanic Garden of Malawi (15 – 19 May).

Further documenting and improving the knowledge of the Malawi flora will make an important contribution to the management and conservation of its forest and agriculture base, as well as contributing to all aspects of taxonomic research. The font of this knowledge is held at the National Herbarium and Botanic Garden (NHBG) in Zomba. Through this project, NHBG will be better placed to provide reliable botanical information for research and natural resources management. The initial target is to barcode, image and enter data from all 80,000+ herbarium specimens and to publish these verified data online.

The database work builds on previous BRAHMS related training provided by Tim Pearce and computing equipment provided by the Shire River Basin Management Program. Donald Mpalika, IT specialist at NHBG, has already established a data network within the herbarium to optimise the efficiency of the data and image related activities, and Dr. Elizabeth Mwafongo, the Senior Scientific Officer at NHBG, is prioritising material for digitisation. Building on these activities, the current acting director of the NHBG, Dr. Zacharia Magombo is now assembling a package of related activity to further support and expand the role of the herbarium and botanic garden with support from the Malawi Ministry of Natural Resources, Energy, Mining and Environment.

May 2017:The Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) supporting plant conservation

The Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), through its European Union (EU)-funded Biodiversity Program, held a 3 day BRAHMS data management workshop for the herbaria of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region. This took place just before the annual African Botanical congress (AETFAT) which this year was held in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants from the Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius and Seychelles were able to refine their knowledge in the use of BRAHMS and in particular, look at new ways of rapidly imaging their herbarium specimens.

The IOC project is supporting the development of a regional botanical network for the Western Indian Ocean region. The islands of this region are marked by a very high rate of endemism. BRAHMS Online will allow individual institutions to publish data online and make their herbaria visible to the wider botanical community, attracting both funding and researchers to their institutes. A pilot project gathering all data and images for the Orchid family has already been completed – this is now being extended to cover all plant families represented in the region’s herbaria.

May 2017: Imaging specimens in the horn of Africa region with IGAD

imagingNMK.jpg As part of the IGAD Biodiversity Management Programme, a regional conservation initiative covering seven countries of the Horn of Africa region, an intensive herbarium specimen imaging project has commenced at the East African Herbarium (EA), National Museums of Kenya (NMK) in Nairobi and in the key herbaria of Ethiopia. The EA herbarium is the largest in Tropical East Africa with some 1.2 million specimens. Specimen images are being captured at 4 imaging stations using high resolution Nikon D750 cameras with 50mm lenses mounted on Manfrotto tripods with NanGuang 3 LED photo lighting. Similar equipment is being used in Ethiopia at the National Herbarium (ETH), the Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute (EBI) and at the Haramaya University herbarium. Activities are soon to be extended to the University of Khartoum herbarium (KHU) in Sudan and at Makerere University herbarium in Uganda.

Lawrence Monda, NMK IT manager has set up a BRAHMS network operating from an NMK server allowing multiple users to log in using Remote Access. A similar set up is being implemented in Ethiopia by Fiseha Getachew. Approximate imaging speed is 3 specimens per minute per camera station. Data entry is supported using the new Rapid Data Entry ‘data from label images’ procedure with links to taxon and location dictionaries. The entire process including procedures for data capture from the label images is described in the BRAHMS support article Guidelines for specimen image capture and image based data entry.

March 2017: BRAHMS software progresses towards v8

A milestone has been reached with the first release of an entirely new generation of the botanical data management system known as BRAHMS. The alpha release, published today, 22 March, takes advantage of the latest data management technologies, creating new opportunities for curation and research for projects running in over 80 countries. For more information, refer to our preliminary guide at . If you are interested in evaluating v8, please contact the BRAHMS project.


March 2017: Helping to document the flora of Vietnam


Vietnam has a highly diverse but neglected and heavily threatened flora, and most of the specimens and associated data have been effectively inaccessible. With support from the JRS Biodiversity Foundation project Taking the Vietnam Flora from Isolation to Integration, the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources of Vietnam and New York Botanical Garden have been supporting specimen data and image capture at the Hanoi Herbarium (HN) in Vietnam. These data are gradually being published on the BRAHMS online site where you can search on the data and view the images. The initial focus has been on 11 plant families important in the flora of the country.

Some example searches: Some images of the genus Knema ; Ericaceae collections ; Collections from Kon Tum.

March 2017: BRAHMS training in Ethiopia

ethiopia2017.jpg A one week BRAHMS course was held at the Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute (EBI) for staff from EBI, the University of Addis Herbarium and the National Botanic Garden. The course covered the full round of activities from data and image capture to building databases, reporting, mapping and publishing online. Looking ahead, with support from the Biodiversity Management Programme (BMP) for the Horn of Africa region project, the plan is to step up digitization and imaging at EBI and ETH and to build a more integrated botanical data infrastructure for the herbaria and botanic gardens. The course, organised by Kirsty Shaw, Head of Ecological Restoration and Tree Conservation at BGCI, was given by Denis Filer, Oxford Plant Sciences with support from Botanic Garden Conservation International (BGCI) and the Darwin Initiative.

January 2017: BRAHMS 7.9 published

BRAHMS 7.9 includes a range of improvements and additions including querying living collections by garden transaction, improved EDITHIST track changes analysis and further options to restrict web uploads, for example redacting CITES taxa. v7.9 also includes a number of new features relating to v8 upgrading. For gardens, new fields added to main species file to indicate species value for taxonomy/evolution; conservation/biodiversity; heritage and landscape; and plants and people. RDE features for rapid barcoding and specimen imaging have been upgraded. News about v8 will be provided here by end of January.

December 2016: Morton Arboretum

A one week training course was held at The Morton Arboretum in Illinois. This was for staff working in garden curation and propagation and the herbarium team. During this visit, refinements and additions were made to BRAHMS, streamlining day to day garden curation procedures and the coordination between garden and herbarium data. The Morton Arboretum mobile garden app running on Android 7" tablets was demonstrated. The map-based application connects to BRAHMS v8, sending in plant details such as inventory, observations and management requests. The visit was organized by Sai Ravichandran and Matt Lobdell and the various courses were presented by Denis Filer. The visit was funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) grant. Following this visit, a revised BRAHMS system 7.8.5 has been published and can be downloaded.

October 2016: BRAHMS 7.8 published

BRAHMS 7.8 includes a host of new features and functions including extension to the living collections module for botanic gardens; BGCI data transfers; an updated Conservation Assessment module; a new tool to review and tabulate all track change entries by user; import and export functions for Symbiota; and new procedures for rapid image and barcode capture using RDE files. Further details will be posted here shortly.

July 2016: BRAHMS course in Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan

Tajikistan.jpg In Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan, from 19-22 July 2016 Jan and Marjo Wieringa (Naturalis, Leiden), Anneleen Kool and Hugo de Boer (NHM, Oslo) and Abdolbaset Ghorbani (Uppsala University) taught a basic Brahms course. This course brought together botanists from Tajikistan, including those working in the National herbarium (TAD) and some of the smaller regional herbaria. The TAD herbarium will start to digitise their entire herbarium, including images of all sheets, and eventually put their database online using a BOL website. The course was principally about imaging sheets and entering data in RDE files, but also on extracting and analysing data. An interesting challenge has been interpreting hand-written voucher labels in Russian from Soviet times and translating these through Tajik to English. In some cases we opted for transliteration only, and this helped to link collections to collectors. The workshop is a first step in reviving botanical research in Tajikistan and making the invaluable collections of Tajik biodiversity available to the international research community.

June 2016: BRAHMS v8 update posted

The next generation of BRAHMS software is well on the way. BRAHMS v8 is being developed for collection managers in herbaria, botanic gardens, arboreta and seed banks; researchers in plant taxonomy; and those working broadly on floristic work undertaking sample-based surveys or compiling checklists and floras. Further information and some screen shots are available on

June 2016: BRAHMS for collection management and research in botanic gardens - APGA, Miami

Aspects of BRAHMS were presented at the APGA (American Public Gardens Association) meeting in Miami 6-10 June 2016 - the focus being how a BRAHMS database can be used in botanic gardens to encourage different types of research initiative as well as for day to day garden management tasks. The presentation was given by Michael Calonje (Cycad specialist, Montgomery Botanical Center, Florida); Eddy Dawson (IT manager, Red Butte Garden, Utah) Denis Filer (Oxford University Plant Sciences) and Matt Lodbell (Garden curator, The Morton Arboretum, Illinois). The presentation Powerpoint available here.

March 2016: Red Butte Botanic Garden, Utah, USA

redbuttecourse.jpg A one week BRAHMS course was held at the Red Butte botanic garden, Salt Lake City, the principal botanic garden in Utah, with participants from their various Red Butte garden sections.

Red Butte run BRAHMS networked from Macs linking to a Cloud based Microsoft Virtual Server run by the University of Utah’s data center. The course was organised by Eddy Dawson, Red Butte IT manager and presented by Denis Filer from Oxford Plant Sciences. The course also provided an opportunity to add some new components to the Living Collection module for seasonal progagation (annual plants), perennial plant orders and plant sales. Utah has a high percentage of endemic plants and the garden represents this in their collection.

March 2016: BRAHMS in Bologna

Annalisa Managlia, curator of the Bologna herbarium (BOLO), Italy, spent 4 days in Oxford to review aspects of their BRAHMS databases and learn about the Oxford curation processes. The Bologna herbarium is one of the oldest in the world with much historical material dating back to the 16th century. Annalisa is currently developing several databases, desktop and online, for old and new material alike. An example: the collections of Ulisse Aldrovandi.


December 2015: BRAHMS 7.7 published

BRAHMS 7.7 published with a new standard key. Multi-users keys have not been changed. BRAHMS 7.7 includes a host of small improvements scattered system wide. There are also significant updates to the botanic garden, seed bank and online publishing modules. Upgrade notes will be added shortly.

October 2015: BRAHMS for botanic gardens and arboreta

Over the last two years, we’ve invested heavily in updating the Living Collections (LC) module in BRAHMS. This now provides a flexible management service for gardens and arboreta. Day to day curation activities typically include cataloguing new acquisitions, production propagation, planting out, plant maintenance, logging requests for future action, generating files for label etching and the monitoring of garden stock.


The LC module also links through to all the other available BRAHMS components providing a wide range of services and features for research and extension activities if these are wanted. In some cases, recording and calculating conservation status of garden species may be a priority, with reference to the known wild distribution of the garden species. This may involve species mapping and could extend to more formal ‘red listing’ and the use of the Conservation Assessment Module (CAM). Other projects may want to build up detailed profiles of species with taxonomic data, descriptive texts (distribution, name origin, common names, plant uses, etc.). Others may want to record results of propagation experiments on seed germination, cuttings and grafts.

The potential use for research is only limited by the data you have stored. A new initiative at the Oxford Harcourt Arboretum is the continuous recording of ground temperature across the entire site. Data loggers have been installed across the 140 acres, in the formal arboretum, semi natural woodland & meadow areas. The data, which will be linked to plant records in BRAHMS, will be used to look at how temperature influences plant growth and other phenological stages.

Image management is a key part of BRAHMS and as well as gathering and linking images of garden plants and specimens into the database, images can be assembled and published online together with garden catalogues creating a virtual botanic garden. BRAHMS has also teamed up with the Zegami software team in Oxford allowing you to present images using the cool Zegami search features. For example the Morton Arboretum garden plant and herbarium images.

The LC module is being fully integrated into BRAHMS v8 - using the latest technologies for desktop and online data management and presentation with options to store your data in SQLite, PostgreSQL or MSQL Server. Further storage options can be added to v8 by extending the v8 DB connection script.

October 2015: BRAHMS v8 well on the way


Development work on V8 started almost 2 years ago. As with a new large building complex, much of the initial work has been preparing the underlying foundations - with not so much to see above ground. But this is changing rapidly now as the presentation layer (user interface) is added.

The key challenge for us has been to develop a system based on the very latest .NET technologies which requires no IT expertise to install; retains all the flexibility and power of v7; and requires minimum learning for anyone familiar with BRAHMS v7. Needless to say, it also has to import everything from v7. A seamless upgrade. V8 is now running demo databases linked to SQLite, PostgreSQL and MSSQL Server. You can choose one or all of these. Our preferred default data source for small to medium sized databases is SQLite as it requires no installation and is completely portable. As with FoxPro, you can copy your database onto a memory stick and even run it from there. Enterprise databases can tap into the full power, speed and security of the larger DBMS options with no limit to size.

In v8, features that are widely used in v7 like record tagging, 2-step record deletion, Zoom, Sigma summaries and column selection are all back in place - but each significantly improved. Zoom windows can be used like custom forms, and their data edited and saved; visible column selections can be dynamically adjusted, saved and shared with others; sigma summaries automatically update as you move column. Record tagging in the main file is no longer ‘all for one and one for all’! Tags, even when viewed in the main files are user specific. One more much demanded improvement to mention here: RDE and extract files have the same structure. In fact, they are stored and managed in the same data table. A feature of BRAHMS 8 that drives home its flexibility is the ability to open multiple spreadsheets simultaneously, drag and dock these to separate areas your of screen or to a separate monitor. Back to that underground phase - we’ve invested heavily in ensuring window control and docking is as flexible as possible.

The current focus is adding in the new query options. These build on what we already have in v7 but are being developed to allow a more or less limitless range of custom queries, all of which can saved and re-used. And this leads us on to some of the more visible outputs such as mapping and reporting, both benefitting from substantial libraries of features within .NET or available via third party solutions.

July 2015: Regional training course – La Réunion


A BRAHMS training event was given 7–9 July with participants from the five African Indian Ocean nations: Comores, Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion and Seychelles with an additional participant from Kenya. The event was sponsored by the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) Biodiversity Program - European Union fund with training provided by Benny Bytebier (Curator, Bews Herbarium, University of KwaZulu-Natal) and Denis Filer, Plant Sciences, University of Oxford. Course logistics were arranged by Chantal Andrianarivo (IOC) and Thierry Pailler (Université de La Réunion) and hosted at the Université de La Réunion Campus du Tampon. The overall project objectives are to facilitate collaboration and data sharing between the regional herbaria. A specific initial objective is to gather data and images of the Orchidaceae from all participating countries and to assemble these on a joint website.

Course participants: Thierry Pailler, REU Herbarium, Uni. La Réunion; Nicole Benech, REU Herbarium, Uni. La Réunion; Jacqueline Lechevin, REU Herbarium, Uni. La Réunion; Ben Antoy Moussa, HKM Herbarium, Univ. Comoros; Andilyiat Mohamed, HKM Herbarium, Univ. Comoros; Harizoly Razafimandimby, TEF Herbarium, FOFIFA, Madagascar; Solo Hery Rapanarivo,TAN Herbarium, PBZT, Madagascar; Mijoro Rakotoarinivo, DBEV Herbarium, Univ. Antananarivo, Madagascar; Charles Morel, SEY Herbarium, Museum of Natural History, Seychelles; James Mougal, Seychelles National Park Authority/Plant Conservation Action Group (PCA), Seychelles; Claudia Baider, MAU Herbarium, The Mauritius Herbarium, Mauritius; B. Hansha Ramsahye, State House, Mauritius; Kersley Pynee, MAU Herbarium, The Mauritius Herbarium, Mauritius; Chandrajyotee Awotorsing, SSR Botanical Gardens, Pamplemousses, Mauritius; Prishnee Bissessur, Univ. Mauritius, Mauritius; Peris Wangari Kamau,EA Herbarium, East African National Herbarium, NMK, Kenya; Chantal Andrianarivo,Commission de l’Océan Indien (COI)/Biodiversity Programme, Mauritius.

June 2015: QGIS mapping from BRAHMS

qgis.jpg For those lucky enough to have QGIS installed, if you have upgraded to BRAHMS 7.6.6, you can create distribution maps with one click. Not to mention all the analysis stuff on offer. When you map data points from BRAHMS, the files MYMAPFILE.DBF and MYMAPFILE.TXT are created in your mapping folder. The txt file can be added to a QGIS map project (together with your other map layers) using (in QGIS) Layer > Add a layer > Add a delimited text layer - or the equivalent toolbar option. If you then save this as a QGIS project, register the project in BRAHMS using Maps > Saved QGIS… projects, you can then select the saved project when mapping and this will always plot the contents of your current MYMAPFILE.

June 2015: meet Zegami - the visual search tool

The last decade has seen a vast increase in the use of images by research botanists and herbaria. Searchable online, producing field guides, identification keys, assisting with herbarium curation and more. A wonderfully flexible tool called Zegami has been developed to display, filter, sort, graph and analyse images with their metadata. We are currently exploring its use linked to BRAHMS and BRAHMS online. A couple of examples have been developed using images provided by The Morton Arboretum in Illinois:

View The Morton Arboretum garden plants in Zegami.

View The Morton Arboretum herbarium specimens in Zegami

For further information, visit the Zegami website or contact Stephen Taylor:

May 2015: BRAHMS training in Malaysia

frim2015.jpg A training course was held at and funded by the Forestry Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, Kuala Lumpur on May 20 - 26. This was primarily for the combined staff of the KEP, SAN and SAR herbaria in Malaysia but also for representatives from Hanoi and Burma (those visits funded by NYBG/JRS Foundation). Amongst the topics covered were managing referenced species descriptive texts from multiple floras; conservation assessments and red listing; mapping to Quantum GIS; diversity analysis; publishing online (including regional networks); storing multiple enumerations for plot data; and managing botanic garden data. The training course, given by Denis Filer, was coordinated by Saw Lang Guan, Director of the Forest Biodiversity Division at FRIM.

March 2015: Seed Bank of Armenia training event

armenia.jpg The Seed Bank of Armenian Flora hosted a one-week BRAHMS training course 23 - 27 March 2015 for Seed Bank and Herbarium staff at the Institute of Botany of the Armenian Academy of Sciences in Yerevan. The Seed Bank of Armenia Flora has been a Partner in the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership since 2011. Their priority is to collect and conserve ex-situ seeds from the endemic and endangered plants of Armenia. Tim Pearce from RBG Kew Millennium Seed Bank Partnership provided the training.

Left to right: Shushan Ohanyan; Astghik Papikyan; Gayane Shaboyan; Karine Janjughazyan; Arpine Achoyan; Yevgenia Navasardyan; Yekaterina Shcherbakova; Tim Pearce; Araksya Elbakyan; Anush Nersesyan

February 2015: Training course at The Morton Arboretum

A one week BRAHMS training event, 16 to 20 February, was held at The Morton Arboretum, Illinois. The event brought garden and herbarium staff together providing an opportunity to fine tune the BRAHMS living collections module and its linkages between garden accessions and plants, herbarium specimens, images and the literature module. Training sessions and discussions were held on file structures; the optimization of data capture for garden accessions, standard inventory data and observations (these also planning for the use of wireless portable devices); and on query, reporting and mapping requirements. Training was provide by Denis Filer and the event was coordinated by Sai Ravichandran who is their director of IT. The Morton Arboretum, together with the MOR herbarium, is one of the foremost botanical gardens in the USA. The Morton family who founded the garden in 1922 were the originators of USA Arbor day. The Arboretum library is a treasure trove of botanical and horticultural books, journals, prints, original art, letters, photographs, landscape plans and drawings. The Arboretum was recently recognized for excellence in ecological restoration.


February 2015: The World List of Cycads

The World List of Cycads, published under the auspices of the IUCN/SSC Cycad Specialist Group, is a comprehensive reference for cycads including useful information related to cycad taxonomy. The list has a 30 year history in printed form and a continuously updated online version is now available at The World List of Cycads database is managed using BRAHMS and the website is populated using tables exported directly from the BRAHMS database.


News entry provided by Michael Calonje, Cycad Biologist, Montgomery Botanical Center, Miami, USA.

January 2015: BRAHMS online updated

The BRAHMS online system (BOL) has been extensively updated with Version 5 published end of December. The revised online system provides a greater range of options to explore and present data as browsable data grids, reports, richness and point maps and images. BOL now uses bootstrap for all web pages. Websites are responsive and can be used on devices such as tablets and mobile phones. The categories of data that can be uploaded are: taxa; botanical records and their specimens; living collections; seed accessions with their seed test data; and botanical survey plots with their associated data. All categories of data can include images.


December 2014: The first training events in Korea

Training_in_Korea_2014.jpg A BRAHMS training event (18 - 19 December) was held at the Korea Forest Training Institute. The course was for researchers and graduates, providing general support for botanical research and collection management. The course covered installation, basic DB handling, data entry using RDE, and report template design. The course was organized by the Herbarium (KH) of Korea National Arboretum and was given Prof. Hui Kim, Mokpo National University.

December 2014: National Herbarium of Malawi

During 2014, some 75,000 voucher records held in a PRECIS database at the National Herbarium of Malawi were transferred into BRAHMS. As a result of this development and in order to strengthen the supply of plant diversity and distribution data to the World Bank-funded Shire River Basin Management Programme, 10 staff from the National Herbarium & Botanic Garden of Malawi and the Forestry Research Institute of Malawi underwent BRAHMS training. The SRBM Project funded the 1 week course (15-19 December) which was hosted by the NHBG at their headquarters in Zomba. It is envisaged that further BRAHMS training will be undertaken as well as the installation of the BRAHMS Online software on the NHBG server and the establishment of the first online herbarium resource for Malawi.

December 2014: Training courses for botanic gardens in South Africa

southafrica_2014.jpg BRAHMS training events (1 – 4 December) were held in Pretoria and Cape Town, South Africa, introducing the BRAHMS Living Collections module to staff from the Harold Porter, Karoo Desert, Kirstenbosch, Kwelera, Lowveld, KwaZulu-Natal, Pretoria and Walter Sisulu National gardens. With some 30 staff on each of the 2 day courses, there was plenty of debate as how best to fine tune BRAHMS to meet all the needs of the South African gardens. During 2015, SANBI will integrate their herbarium and living collections data in to a single, networked database. The courses were organized by Brenda Daly, supported by SANBI and given by Denis Filer.

October 2014: Naturalis database clocks up over 3 million specimens

picturae_imaging.jpg The Naturalis BRAHMS national herbarium database in the Netherlands now has over 3.3 million specimen and some 540,000 species and infraspecific taxa entries. Funded by a Dutch Government project, they are aiming to upload a total of 4.5 million specimens by the end of 2015. Almost all of the specimens are imaged and the images are linked in BRAHMS using media library URLs. The database is accessed daily by between 10 and 20 users simultaneous using a remote access system on a virtual server located in Leiden. Naturalis are also involved in current developments with BRAHMS v8.

September 2014: Morton Arboretum wins IMLS award

mortonsnap.jpg The Morton Arboretum near Chicago, currently migrating their Living Collections and Herbarium data to BRAHMS, has been awarded a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Service (IMLS) in the US. The grant will help The Morton Arboretum further integrate and cross reference their living collections and herbarium specimens, images and species data. In particular, the grant will be used to develop a mobile application for use on the grounds that will help staff to enter and check data and images and as well as provide mobile devices to access the mobile app developed for field data entry. They will also be developing in BRAHMS a new plant propagation module to monitor requests and tasks received and performed by The Morton Arboretum's propagation team. The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the United States' 123,000 libraries and 35,000 museums. Their mission is to inspire libraries and museums to advance innovation, lifelong learning, and cultural and civic engagement. Their grant making, policy development, and research help libraries and museums deliver valuable services that make it possible for communities and individuals to thrive. To learn more, visit and follow IMLS on Facebook and Twitter.

Entry provided by Sai Ravichandran, Director, Information Technology, The Morton Arboretum.

August 2014: BRAHMS course at CONABIO, Mexico

mexico.jpg BRAHMS course for 15 participants during 18-22 August held at the facilities of the "Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad" (CONABIO), in D.F., México. given by Jeanine Vélez Gavilán from MAPR, Puerto Rico. Topics discussed: installation, standard tools, RDE files, RDE to BRAHMS transfers, query, text and visual reports, specimen imaging, mapping and the development websites using BRAHMS Online.

June 2014: Korean Vascular Plant Checklist

A provisional Checklist of Vascular Plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora (KPF, Chang et al. 2014 edition) published by TB Lee Herbarium, Seoul and Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, Korea. This checklist is a compilation of the native and naturalized pteridophytes, conifers and flowering plants recorded in the Korea peninsular. It represents an updating of the floral listings in Lee (1976; TB Lee 李昌福). Since then numerous taxonomic (and resultant nomenclatural) changes have been proposed by recent revisionary studies, often with molecular data inputs reinterpreting classification. ISBN 978-89-968648-3-7 (PDF). This checklist was developed using BRAHMS.

June 2014: National Botanical Resources Institute, Namibia

BRAHMS training and system review 14 – 21 June at the National Botanical Resources Institute (NBRI) in Windhoek, Namibia. NBRI has an impressive herbarium (ca. 90,000 specimens), already mostly catalogued in their central database together with official species list. This is now being extended to incorporate images, living collections, conservation assessment work, plot data and possibly their gene bank data. The visit was or Organized by Esmerialda Klaassen and funded through NBRI. Training sessions with Denis Filer from Plant Sciences, Oxford.


June 2014: BRAHMS Version 7.5 published

BRAHMS Version 7.5 published. Update notes can be viewed or downloaded here. The upgrade includes extensions to the Living Collection and Sample Plot modules; improved controls for data grid field views; a new Plant Uses module and improvements with the management of common names; the ability to reference images as URLs; improvements with linking literature references to species names; and more...

May 2014: Imaging specimens - two approaches

Imaging specimens with BRAHMS – two very different approaches. A Short article in the Oxford Plant Systematics newsletter OPS 20 by Denis Filer & Jan Wieringa. Typing in data from specimens is not the most exciting part of any botanical project. Nevertheless, for those wishing to take advantage of what a database can offer for curation and research, a minimum set of data fields must be entered and given that projects spend enormous amounts of time on this task alone, choosing the right approach is vital...

March 2014: BRAHMS export to Scratchpads

Working in collaboration with Katherine Bouton and the Scratchpads Team at the Natural History Museum in London, a Scratchpads export function has been added to the BRAHMS online publishing menu. Testing has been conducted with the Solanum PBI database developed by Sandy Knapp et al. Documentation on how to export from BRAHMS to Scratchpads can be found on:

March 2014: BRAHMS Version 7.4 published

Amongst the updates are: a new plant uses and common names module; improved literature reference handling including rapid reference linking to species records; a completed Conservation Assessment Module (CAM); improved tree view access for file navigation; image file with tree views to locate and view images by taxa and geography; revised image management tools; a revised sample plot module with options to register sample headers and data in the main database; improved forms for botanical records and living collections.

February 2014: Short BRAHMS article in Oxford Univ. magazine

blueprintsnap.jpg A Resource of Rare Value - a short article published about the BRAHMS project in the University of Oxford Blueprint magazine, pages 12-13.

February 2014: Digistreet specimen imaging and digitization at Naturalis

Picturae in the Netherlands have developed a highly efficient process for bulk imaging of herbarium specimens. The process is being used by Naturalis to capture images from some 40,000 herbarium sheets per day. Matrix barcodes are added to all boxes, cover folders and specimens. Read more and watch video.

The Digistreet camera software captures all barcodes together with the specimen images. The data and images are auto-imported to BRAHMS RDE files where tools options are used for processing. Specimens already databased with existing and older format barcodes are located and updated with the new barcodes – old barcode numbers are maintained. At this stage, the RDE files are opened by a data entry project located in Surinam where the data are entered based on the specimen images. In this large scaleproject, some 50 staff have been trained to capture the data each with two monitors, one for the RDE spreadsheet, the other to display the linked image. Using an RDE tool, cover sheet data (i.e. geographic region and taxon name) are typed to the RDE file and are cloned down to all specimens within that folder reducing typing. Further data are then typed in from the images, where possible, using RDE lookup options linked to the main Naturalis database.

February 2014: Caribbean Biodiversity Congress, Dominican Republic

Two BRAHMS posters prepared by Jeanine Velez Gavilan (MAPR herbarium) for the VIII Caribbean Biodiversity Congress at Dominican Republic can be downloaded here. The meeting, 28 Jan - 2 Feb, was hosted by the UASD with some 200 participants from various countries:


January 2014: BRAHMS 8 development starts

BRAHMS upgrading started in earnest at the start of January. We are developing the foundations of the new system as broadly as possible in a .NET environment. By the end of March, we aim to have the core framework developed with additional support from NERC and BBSRC accelerating the initial developments. Longer term partnership and collaborative development with Kew and Naturalis in the Netherlands is being formalised over the coming weeks.

November 2013: Senior Developer - BRAHMS 8 Project at Kew

A BRAHMS software development position is being advertised by RBG Kew. Details are provided on the Kew website for Job Opportunities. Closing date 9 December 2013.

November 2013: An Atlas of the World’s Conifers

An Atlas of the World's Conifers. An Analysis of their Distribution, Biogeography, Diversity and Conservation Status published by Brill, Netherlands. Aljos Farjon, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK and Denis Filer, University of Oxford. The first ever atlas of all known conifer species. It is based on locality information of ca. 37,000 collected herbarium specimens held in scientific institutions. Conifer diversity is analysed and presented with a taxonomic and geographic perspective. Distribution patterns are interpreted using the latest information on continental drift, dispersal and phylogeny. The entire dataset supporting the Atlas can be consulted and verified using the Conifer Database online.


November 2013: Launch of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental herbarium website

embrapawebsitesnap.jpg Supporting botanical research in the Eastern Amazon region of Brazil. The official launch of the online herbarium database for Embrapa Amazonia Oriental. The Embrapa herbarium (IAN) was the first project to use BRAHMS in Brazil and has been closely involved in its on-going development. The herbarium with over 190,000 specimens, at least 2000 types, a library of 30,000 type photos and a Xylarium with over 8000 wood samples, has excellent facilities for and welcomes visiting researchers. The launch event was also reported on Portal Brasil.

November 2013: Brazilian National Botanical Conference

A 2-day training course entitled 'Herbarium data curation with an emphasis on BRAHMS' will be held at the Federal University of Minas Gerais, just before the Brazilian National Botanical Conference (10-15 Nov/2013). The course is offered by INCT Virtual Herbarium of Plants and Fungi and taught by Flávia Pezzini (CRIA/INCR-HVFF) and Marina Melo (Herbarium UB). The course aims to train curators, technicians and interns about data curation best practises, in order to improve quality of the data available to present to the SpeciesLink network in Brazil.

October 2013: BRAHMS network in South Africa launched

The South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) have moved their botanical data into BRAHMS over the last year and this system is now networked over terminal services linking the main SANBI herbaria in Pretoria, Cape Town and Durban. The system will be officially launched 24 October in Pretoria. A number of short workshops and training courses have been organised 23 - 28 October, coordinated by Brenda Daly, and these will be run by Denis Filer (Plant Sciences, Oxford) and Jan Wieringa (Wageningen/Naturalis, Netherlands).

August 2013: University of Waikato, New Zealand

A 2-day training course was held at the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato in New Zealand offered by Matt Buys from the New Zealand National Forestry Herbarium (NZFRI). The university herbarium (WAIK) houses about 20000 specimens mainly from the Central North Island. The herbarium has recently installed BRAHMS and staff and volunteers are busy transferring data to BRAHMS.

August 2013: University of Panamá and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

A short course/meeting was held at the University of Panamá and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute offered by Jeanine Vélez Gavilán (MAPR, Puerto Rico) to upgrade the database Brahms and provide training. The University of Panamá holds the largest Herbarium at Panamá (PMA), with important collections from the country and the rest of Central America. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institution (STRI) in Panamá, is a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution based outside of the United States, is dedicated to understanding biological diversity and hosts the Herbarium (SCZ). Course foto...

August 2013: Using BRAHMS In taxonomic botany studies

The postgraduate course in Botany at the National Amazon Research Institute (INPA) in Manaus Amazonia, Brazil is running a five day course entitled: “Using BRAHMS In taxonomic botany studies”, 12-16 August, taught by Mike Hopkins, curator of the INPA herbarium. The course includes importing taxonomic and specimen level data from BRAHMS databases and national and international sites, methods of organization of the data and cleaning tools, and mapping using DIVA-GIS. Each of the ten students will produce a draft of a monograph of a selected genus using the BRAHMS’s text reporting tools.

June 2013: BRAHMS Version 7.3 published

BRAHMS Version 7.3 published. Update notes can be viewed or downloaded here. Faster operation for multiple user systems on local networks; Enhanced living collections module for botanic gardens; Much improved Text Reporter; New tools for formatting taxonomic revisions and similar outputs; Improved control over extract files; Copy/save as exports now respect field views; Revised saved files manager; Conservation assessments; Latitude gradient calculations for species and genera; Storage of host plant details for bryophytes, lichens, parasitic plants and similar; Ability to update records (rather than add new) from RDE botanical record files; Match with and optionally update records from a second BRAHMS database.

May 2013: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Brazil

BRAHMS course for 24 participants 6-10 May held at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria in Brazil given by Karine Massia Pereira (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG). The course objective is to introduce and advance knowledge about BRAHMS for students and botany professionals. Topics include installation, standard tools, RDE files, RDE to BRAHMS transfers, query, text and visual reports, specimen imaging, mapping and the development websites using BRAHMS Online. Funded by the Jardim Botânico de Santa Maria, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas (CCNE), Universidade Federal de Santa Maria.

May 2013: BRAHMS partnership meeting

A two day meeting (1 - 2 May) held at Plant Sciences, Oxford to discuss the formation of a BRAHMS partnership group/consortium. The specifications of Version 8 were presented and the sustainable resourcing of BRAHMS for the next 5 years were discussed. Attending were representatives from Oxford, RBG Kew, Naturalis (Netherlands) and the Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

April 2013: The Flowering Plants Endemic to Brunei Darussalam 2012

On Thursday 11 April 2013, the book ‘The Flowering Plants Endemic to Brunei Darussalam 2012.’ was launched in Bandar Seria Begawan, Brunei Darussalam. The book outlines the approach taken for short-lifting the endemics, discusses their endemic status, proposes conservation approaches and presents the 65 endemics. BRAHMS was a strong support for this research: a.o., access to herbaria holdings via BRAHMS Online (L, SING), production of lists of excisates and distribution map. J.Henrot, Joffre A.A. & K.M. Wong. 2013. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources, Brunei Darussalam, 119 pages. ISBN: 978-99917-31-08-7. The book should become shortly available on line as pdf on the site of the Brunei Forestry Department . Contact:

March 2013: Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG)

11 - 23 March. Training course and technical help on the advanced use of BRAHMS for technical staff and researchers at the Herbário João Murça Pires do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Brasil. Arranged under the "Programa de Capacitação Institucional (PCI) do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG) Plano para Bolsa modalidade BEV (PESQUISADOR VISITANTE)". Visit coordinated by Dr Ely Simone Gurgel, Pesquisadora, Coordenação de Botânica.

March 2013: Gobabeb Research and Training Centre, Namibia

The Gobabeb Research and Training Centre is an internationally recognized institution focusing on research and training in arid environments and is situated south-east of Walvis Bay in the Namib-Naukluft National Park in Namibia.

The staff of the National Herbarium of Namibia (WIND) have recently spent time at the Gobabeb facilities, to support the centre to resurrect the herbarium, a modest yet valuable collection of Namib Desert plants. The services they rendered included the introduction and setting up of BRAHMS, and training in using this tool; physical maintenance of the collection and repair of herbarium specimens; as well as rearranging the collection to be in line with the updated checklist of indigenous and naturalized plants of Namibia. Staff trained included Gobabeb interns as well as students from the University of Namibia (UNAM) and the Polytechnic of Namibia currently doing in-service training. Read more...

March 2013: Rafael M. Moscoso Botanic Garden, Dominican Republic

A short course offered by Jeanine Vélez Gavilán (MAPR, Puerto Rico) to the JBSD Herbarium at the Rafael M. Moscoso Botanic Garden, Dominican Republic to install Brahms and provide training. The Rafael M. Moscoso Botanic Garden is very well recognised in the region for the beauty of their areas and living collections, but also for its research, actively working on the conservation of their native species and documentation of the Flora of the country. Course foto...

February 2013: preliminary BRAHMS v8 upgrade meeting

A two meeting held in Oxford (13/14 February) attended by representatives from RBG Kew, Naturalis (National Herbarium of the Netherlands), the BRAHMS team in Oxford and Isis Innovation (University of Oxford technology transfer). This meeting reviewed some of the key technical issues concerning the forthcoming upgrade of BRAHMS to v8 (software, DBMS, web enabling) as well as stakeholdership, funding and future support.

January 2013: Software to compare and update BRAHMS databases

Development of software to compare and update BRAHMS databases funded by FAPEAM (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas). Work under taken by Denis Filer and Mike Hopkins at INPA, Manaus 7- 12 January 2013.

December 2012: Universidade Federal de Rondônia

BRAHMS training event 3 - 7 December 20112 at the Universidade Federal de Rondônia in Brazil given by Prof. MSc. Narcísio Costa Bigio e Fabiana Archanjo. The course objective is for students and post graduates providing general support for botanical research in the Brazil state of Rondônia.

November 2012: Documentation on creating XML for API/LAPI

The document Generating XML for API and LAPI describes procedures within BRAHMS to generate the required XML transfer file required by the African Plants Initiative (API) and Latin American Plants Initiative (LAPI) projects. This export feature has been recently updated within BRAHMS V 7.1.

September 2012: BRAHMS - music to a cyber-taxonomist’s ears

Poster presentation given at the 2012 Australasian Systematic Botany Society Conference in Perth. Matt H. Buys National Forestry Herbarium, New Zealand Forest Research Institute (Scion), Private Bag 3020, Rotorua 3046, New Zealand. Email:

July 2012: Online herbarium transactions and image based loans

A new BRAHMS module for online herbarium transactions and image based loans published. For details, refer to online documentation.

July 2012: Tasmanian Vascular Plant Census

A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania and Index to the Student's Flora of Tasmania (ML Baker & MF de Salas, 2012 edition) published by the Tasmanian Herbarium, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia., ISBN 978-1-921599-71-2 (PDF). The checklist was developed using BRAHMS.

July: 2012: BRAHMS Version 7.0 published

BRAHMS Version 7.0 published. Update notes can be viewed or downloaded here. BRAHMS v7 is published together with a heavily upgraded BRAHMS online service and WebConnect module.

July 2012: Bews Virtual Herbarium website launch

The Bews Herbarium (NU) of the University of KwaZulu-Natal is South Africa's fifth largest herbarium and the largest in the province. It was established in 1910 and is estimated to house more than 150,000 flowering plant specimens. The Bews Herbarium is the first herbarium in South Africa to bring its specimen data online as on The launch on 2 July 2012 has been organised by Drs Benny Bytebier and Christine Potgieter.

April 2012: Phenological Predictability Index (PPI) in BRAHMS

Phenological Predictability Index in BRAHMS: a tool for herbarium-based phenological studies. Carolyn E. B. Proença, Denis L. Filer, Eddie Lenza, Juliana S. Silva, Stephen A. Harris. Ecography Volume 35, Issue 4, pages 289–293, April 2012. Phenological Predictability Index (PPI) is a tool for analysing phenological patterns incorporating herbarium data within BRAHMS. PPI produces a maximum-activity period and associated event predictability index between ∼0 and 1. Simple, monthly random sampling showed the ideal number of unique records (event/month/year) is > 50. PPI correctly predicted the maximum-activity flowering month for seven out of eight species studied in the field, and was positively correlated (R2= 0.610, p = 0.02) with phenophase length, even using suboptimum numbers of unique records. Technical notes available online.

April 2012: National Botanical Research Institute, Namibia

20-27 April 2012. Development of the species list for Namibia. Establishment of networked BRAHMS system within the National Herbarium of Namibia at Windhoek (WIND) to manage herbarium and plot data.

April 2012: Herbário IAN, Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Pará, Brazil

Implementation of BRAHMS online at Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. The IAN herbarium houses one of the largest botanical collections for the Eastern Brazil Amazonian region, almost fully digitized and imaged. Data and images are being published online in stages.

April 2012: University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

Collaborative work with the Deptarment of Botany, University of Campinas (UNICAMP)and the Instituto de Botânica in São Paulo to develop e-floras for São Paulo state. Visit sponsored by FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo).

2012: An Atlas of the World’s Conifers

An atlas of the world’s conifers is being prepared by Aljos Farjon and Denis Filer. The atlas, based on data stored in the BRAHMS conifer database, will indicate the known distribution of all conifer taxa together with an analysis of their biogeography, diversity and conservation status. To be published by Brill (Leiden, The Netherlands) during 2012.

April 2012: South African National Biodiversity Institute

Two BRAHMS training courses are being held at the South African National Biodiversity Institutes at Kirstenbosch Research Centre in Cape Town and at the National Herbarium in Pretoria. The courses will include all aspects of general curation as well as more specialized research topics including the capture and processing of images and publishing data online. These courses are being organised and co-funded by SANBI and will be presented by Denis Filer from the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford. The Pretoria workshop will have support in Portuguese for participants from Angola and Mozambique. BRAHMS is being implemented by SANBI as herbarium information management system replacing PRECIS.

December 2011: UKOT Online Herbarium launch

14 December 2011: the BRAHMS online herbarium website for all of the UK Overseas Territories will be officially launched at the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew in London, UK. The online herbarium project has been developed by Kew's UKOTs Programme and funded by the Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP). The UKOTs online herbarium is part of Kew's commitment to the delivery of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC).

December 2011: Amazonian REFLORA project, Brazil

The Amazonian REFLORA project is holding its initial planning and training meeting at INPA (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia)in Manaus from the 5-9 December. Almost all of the 20 plus Amazonian herbaria have already been informatized using BRAHMS and several have been photographed using the recommended BRAHMS procedures. The three-year project, funded by the Brazilian national and Amazonas state governments, is to compare, improve and make available data on Amazonian plants. The aim of this meeting is to promote the interchange of information between herbaria, and with herbaria outside Brazil, and especially to improve the level of identification quality through the exchange of identifications of collections held in duplicata in different herbaria. Twelve of the Amazonian herbaria will be represented at the meeting, which will include training in database cleaning, specimen photography and renaming files, use of determination files created by database comparisons, as well as creation of sites directly from BRAHMS. The project’s BOL website is Meeting coordinated by Mike Hopkins.

October 2011: East African Herbarium reaches digitisation milestone

As part of an on-going effort to digitise the whole of it's collection, the East African Herbarium (EA) in Nairobi has now completed 100,000 records, 10% of its target. For further details about the EA digitisation project, contact Simon Kang'ethe Ndichu (

October 2011: Second Eastern African Virtual Herbarium Project Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya

Representatives from the East African Herbarium (EA) in Nairobi and the Addis Ababa University Herbarium (ETH) attended a 2 day workshop hosted by EA and RBG Kew. Homepages have now been completed for these two institutes and digitisation programmes proposed. For further details about the Eastern African Virtual Herbarium Project contact Tim Pearce (

September 2011: Milestone at the Kepong Herbarium, Malaysia

Reported by Saw Leng Guan, Director of the Tropical Forest Biodiversity Centre at the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, the Kepong herbarium botany team (Saripah and Asnah mentioned in particular) have now catalogued data and many images from over 200,000 specimens. The KEP herbarium database, the largest available on the Malay peninsula, supports curation and a wide range of taxonomic and floristic research projects on the flora of the Malaysia. For further details about KEP herbarium, contact the KEP curator Richard Chung (

September 2011: BRAHMS training at RBG Kew herbarium, UK

20 - 21 September 2011. A 2 day BRAHMS for beginners training event for some Kew herbarium staff and visiting researchers. This will go some way to support the growing number of new users working at the Kew herbarium. A data transfer module from BRAHMS to Kew's proprietary specimen catalogue (HerbCat) was developed last year. Course organized and given by Tim Pearce.

July 2011: BRAHMS course, Bews Herbarium, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

11 - 15 July 2011: Comprehensive introductory training course on BRAHMS at the Bews herbarium (NU), School for Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal in Pietermaritzburg with representatives from regional herbaria and conservation organisations. The course will focus on curation and data management as well as on transfer of data from PRECIS to BRAHMS. The course is organised by Drs. Bytebier and Potgieter of the Bews Herbarium and will be given by Denis Filer from the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford. The course is co-sponsored by the South African Biodiversity Information Facility and the Early Detection and Rapid Response Programme of the South African National Biodiversity Institute.

May 2011: BRAHMS implemented at Oxford Botanic Garden

The new BRAHMS living collections module developed with the Leiden and Oxford botanic gardens has been installed initially at Oxford. Implementation at Leiden will be in June. One of the objectives at Oxford is to cross reference the living collections data and images with specimen vouchers as registered in the FHO/OXF herbarium database and to streamline (perhaps eventually unite) these databases. The living collections module will be published with BRAHMS 6.9 this month.

April 2011: BRAHMS presentation in Ukraine

14 April 2011. A presentation given by Olga Korniyenko at M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, NAS of Ukraine in Kiev at the first Ukrainian herbarium digitization and management meeting, 11-16 April, 2011 organised by the institute director Prof. Sergei Mosyakin. The meeting had c. 50 participants from around Ukraine, Belorussia, elsewhere from the Russian Federation and the USA. The meeting was funded by Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. A BRAHMS ppt in Ukrainian (translated by Olga Korniyenko) is available on request. A summary of BRAHMS in Russian is on

May 2011: BRAHMS Version 6.9 published

BRAHMS Version 6.9 published 30 May 2011 together with the new living collections module. Review latest upgrade notes.

June 2011: Plant identification and database course, Aveiro, Portugal

27 June - 1 July 2011. Training course to be held at the University of Aveiro in Portugal. This will include sessions on BRAHMS. For further information and registration by 30 May, visit Course organiser: Paulo Silveira.

April 2011: BRAHMS presentation to Naturalis, Netherlands

5 April 2011. A presentation given by Denis Filer to Naturalis (National Museum of Natural History) in Leiden. The presentation described the use of BRAHMS for curation and research across a range of projects including the National Herbarium of the Netherlands (NHN) which operates the largest BRAHMS database to date. Also discussed - the development and re-structuring of BRAHMS over the next one to two years as the system is upgraded to its new platform.

November 2010: Towards an Eastern African Virtual Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

The first Regional workshop for the Eastern African Virtual Herbarium was hosted by the National Herbarium of Ethiopia at Addis Ababa University. Supported by a generous grant to the RBG Kew from the Dulverton Trust, the workshop brought together staff representing the 5 major regional herbaria. 15 participants from Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia enjoyed some BRAHMS 'refresher' training before designing institutional web pages and undertaking species conservation assessments on regionally compiled data. A second workshop will be held in early 2011. Contact: Tim Pearce, RBG Kew,

November 2010: BRAHMS Version 6.8 published

BRAHMS Version 6.8 published 01 November 2010 together with new 'About BRAHMS' information pages in multiple languages; a resived help file; and an updated 2010 BRAHMS for beginners training guide. New and improved features are listed on the documentation page. Review latest upgrade notes.

October to December 2009: University of Campinas, Brazil

Continued development of BRAHMS to facilitate data capture and subsequent publication of various floras in Brazil. Digitization of UEC herbarium. In collaboration with the Dept. of Botany, University of Campinas. Sponsored by FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo).

September 2010: BRAHMS training course, Herbário IAN, Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Brazil

13 - 17 September 2010. BRAHMS training course at the Laboratório de Informática, Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém - PA, Brazil. In partnership with the Amazon Forest Management Project. Instructors: Helena Joseane Raiol Souza e Sebastião Ribeiro Xavier Júnior.

September 2010: South Georgia Online Herbarium launch

15 September 2010: the BRAHMS online herbarium website for South Georgia will be officially launched at RBG Kew as part of the UKOT research programme (UK Overseas Territories). The online herbarium component of this project is funded by the Overseas Territories Environment Programme OTEP and the achievment is part of Kew's Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC).

September 2010: BRAHMS seminar, RBG Kew, UK

9 September 2010: BRAHMS for researchers. Presentation at Herbarium, RBG Kew by Denis Filer with reference to Palm, Mrytaceae and West Tropical Africa datasets.

September 2010: 61st Brazil National Botanical Congress - Image management in BRAHMS

4 - 5 September 2010: Mini-course on image management in BRAHMS. Course presented by Mike Hopkins, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). 61st National Botanical Congress, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. [Ementa: Curso prático para mostrar como pode gerenciar imagens botânicas digitais usando o programa BRAHMS, incluindo renomeação de imagens rapidamente em padrão para importação. Ligação com informação já presente em bancos de dados botânicos, e como usar imagens para a entrada de dados com eficiência.] More details.

August 2010: National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI), Namibia

16 - 20 August 2010: Comprehensive introductory training course on BRAHMS at the National Herbarium of Namibia. The course will cover installation, optimized data entry using RDE, imaging, mapping, diversity analysis, checklisting, loan management, report template design and online publishing. The Namibian database will be linked to other database projects running at NBRI such as that used by the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB) project. Course given by Denis Filer from the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford. Course sponsored by the National Botanical Research Institute, Namibia.

June 2010: Biodiversity Information Facility rapid imaging pilot project, South Africa

The value of the rapid low resolution imaging of specimen labels to Rapid Data Entry files to expedite digitisation of herbarium specimens will be tested in the Compton Herbarium (NBG), South Africa. This pilot project is sponsored by the South African Biodiversity Information Facility (SABIF) and has potential to guide SABIF best-practice policies.

May 2010: National Herbarium Netherlands

17 - 21 May 2010: training and technical meeting in Leiden with focus on Living Collections management. Visit coordinated by Gerda van Uffelen and Luc Willemse. Sponsored by National Herbarium of the Netherlands.

May 2010: BRAHMS Version 6.7 published

BRAHMS Version 6.7 published 10 May 2010 together with updated help file and revised 2010 training guide. New and improved features are listed on the documentation page. Review latest upgrade notes.

April 2010: Brunei National Herbarium (BRUN), Sungai Liang, Brunei

6 - 10 April 2010: BRAHMS training course focusing on curation and publishing online. Course held at Brunei Herbarium coordinated by Joffre Ali Ahmad and Dr. Jacqueline Henrot. Course given by Serena Lee (Herbarium Manager, Singapore Herbarium, Singapore Botanic Gardens). Sponsored by Brunei National Herbarium and Singapore Botanic Gardens.

March 2010: Importance of herbaria for plant conservation workshop, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

8 - 12 March 2010. Use of BRAHMS to analyse and map species distribution and diversity, Botanical Garden of Santo Domingo (JBSD). Presented by Jeanine Vélez Gavilán (Herbarium MAPR, Puerto Rico). Sponsored by Red Latinoamericana de Botánica.

March 2010: Plant endemism of the Central Andean valleys, Bolivia

8 - 13 March 2010. BRAHMS training with herbaria in Santa Cruz (USZ) and La Paz (LPB). Sponsored by Darwin Initiative Project Plant endemism of the Central Andean valleys.

February 2010: Threatened Plants Project, Madagascar

8 - 12 February 2010. BRAHMS training course for herbarium/seed management, mapping and diversity analysis. Sponsored by Madagascar Threatened Plants Project, RBG Kew.

February 2010: BRAHMS Version 6.6

BRAHMS Version 6.6 published 5 February 2010 together with revised 2010 training guide. Version 6.6 includes new admin and security features for installation on network drives together with a host of new data editing, analysis, reporting and mapping features.

December 2009: Third Meeting of the Plant Innitiative 'LAPI', Medellín, Colombia

1 - 3 December 2009. Databasing tools and data exchange: BRAHMS 6 overview, at Botanical Garden (JAUM). Sponsored by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

November 6 2009: Jardim Botânico, Rio de Janeiro

Current developments with BRAHMS including Client-Server implementation. Presentation at the Herbarium of Rio de Janeiro Botanic Gardens.

October to December 2009: University of Campinas, Brazil

Development of BRAHMS to facilitate data capture and subsequent publication of various floras in Brazil. In collaboration with the Dept. of Botany, University of Campinas. Sponsored by FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo).

Sept 2009: BRAHMS training course, IEPA, Amapá , Brazil

28 Sept - 02 Oct 2009. BRAHMS course for curation and research applications. Held at Herbário HAMAB. Sponsored by IEPA (Instituto de Pesquisas Científicas e Tecnológicas do Estado do Amapá). Instructors: Helena Joseane Raiol Souza e Sebastião Ribeiro Xavier Júnior (Herbário IAN, Embrapa Amazônia Oriental).

August 2009: Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam

17 - 22 August 2009. BRAHMS herbarium curation course. VNM Herbarium, Hochiminh City, Vietnam. Institute of Tropical Biology (Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology). Sponsored by L'Institut de recherché pour le développement (IRD).

July 2009: Conservation of endangered coastal biodiversity hotspots of Central Chile

27 July to 7 August. BRAHMS training held in Department of Plant Sciences, Oxford. Specimen and image management + biodiversity analysis. Funded from Darwin Initiative project 'Conservation of endangered coastal biodiversity hotspots of Central Chile'.

June 2009: BRAHMS upgraded to Version 6.5

25 June. BRAHMS upgrade to Version 6.5. Upgrade notes are provided in help file.

June 2009: Kirstenbosch Research Centre, Cape Town, South Africa

1 June - 5 June 2009. Plant E-taxonomy in South Africa. BRAHMS course held at the Kirstenbosch Research Centre, Cape Town. Sponsored by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI).

May 2009: National Herbarium, Pretoria, South Africa

26 May - 29 May 2009. Plant E-taxonomy in South Africa. BRAHMS course held at the National Herbarium, Pretoria. Sponsored by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI).

May 2009: BRAHMS training course, Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Brazil

25 - 29 May 2009. Introduction to BRAHMS for herbarium management and research. Held at Laboratório de Informática, Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém - PA, Brazil. Instructors: Helena Joseane Raiol Souza e Sebastião Ribeiro Xavier Júnior. Coordinated by Embrapa Amazônia Oriental (Herbário IAN) and Museu Goeldi (MG).

May 2009: Rescue and Integration of Botanical Data in the Southwestern Amazon

10 - 14 May 2009. BRAHMS training course and review of BOL online network. Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. Rescue and Integration of Botanical Data for Conservation in the Southwestern Amazon. Together with New York Botanic Garden. Sponsored by the J.R.S Biodiversity Foundation.

March 2009: Flora of Peninsular Malaysia

16 - 20 March 2009. Advanced BRAHMS training course. Tropical Forest Biodiversity Centre (TFBC), FRIM, Malaysia. Sponsored by the Flora of Peninsular Malaysia project.

March 2009: Biodiversity Informatics Project, Ghana

2 - 6 March 2009. BRAHMS training course. Ghana Biodiversity Informatics Project, Accra, Ghana. Sponsored by the J.R.S Biodiversity Foundation.

February 2009: Tbilisi Botanical Garden and Institute of Botany, Georgia

9 - 13 February 2009. BRAHMS training course with emphasis on seed bank management. Tbilisi Botanical Garden and Institute of Botany, Tbilisi, Georgia. Sponsored by RBG Kew.

November 2008: DNA module for BRAHMS

20 - 21 November 2008. Development of a DNA module for BRAHMS. Discussion workshop funded by EDIT project - European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy. Coordinated by Denis Filer, Held at Plant Sciences, University of Oxford with representatives from Kew and Oxford (UK); Leiden (Netherlands); and Uppsala (Sweden).